Top 30 Natural Weed Killer Alternatives To Glyphosate and Roundup That Are OMRI Organic Certified

People have growing concerns about the allegations that the active ingredient in RoundUp Glyphosate causes non-hodgkin’s lymphoma and this has caused many municipalities and homeowners looking for a natural weed killer. in this article, we will cover all the alternatives to roundup, there are many unknown university tested and proven products that are alternatives to glyphosate. Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world used in more than 130 countries, utilized in agricultural, forestry, golf courses, groves, orchards, commercial, residential landscapes and nurseries for the control of weeds and grasses. Over 100 million pounds of the active ingredient is applied in the U.S. every year, according to the EPA. There are more than 750 products containing glyphosate available for sale in the U.S, according to the National Pesticide Information Center. The EPA has a list of exempt minimum risk active ingredient that is exempt meaning they do not require EPA registration. Minimum Risk Pesticides – Inert Ingredient and Active Ingredient Eligibility under 40 CFR 152.25(f) If a minimum risk pesticide contains as an active ingredient a chemical that is also eligible under 40 CFR 152.25(f) as an inert ingredient, will the product still be eligible as a minimum risk product? The List of Approved NOP National Organic Program of Allowed and Prohibited Substances.

Glyphosate Weed Killer Herbicide Background

Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, a.k.a. the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate] works by blocking of enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase which is essential for plant growth.

Glyphosate binds tightly to soil particles after being applied, becoming immobilized so it can no longer kill plants. There in no residual soil activity, so any crop, plant, tree or lawn can be seeded or planted into the soil soon after application. Glyphosate is biodegraded in the soil by microorganisms into ammonium and carbon dioxide.

According to The EPA which has evaluated the safety of glyphosate has concluded that it has low toxicity for people, however pets may be at risk of digestive problems if they touch or ingest plants that have been recently sprayed. The EPA has concluded that glyphosate is not likely to be a carcinogen in humans.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer which sparked this scientific debate has concluded that glyphosate may be a carcinogen in humans. The European Food Safety Authority, The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), The World Health Organization (WHO) Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), have determined that it is unlikely to be a carcinogen.

Here are two documents showing the EPA current risk assessments of glyphosate Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments for Glyphosate

https://www.epa.gov/ingredients-used-pesticide-products/draft-human-health-and-ecological-risk-assessments-glyphosate

https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-takes-next-step-review-process-herbicide-glyphosate-reaffirms-no-risk-public-health

The 55 page Interim Registration Review released on April 2019

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2019-04/documents/glyphosate-pid-signed.pdf

There is a growing public demand for safer green natural pesticides which have resulted in many new and exciting natural 25b, omri certified and organic products becoming available for controlling weeds in. Even though information for home on both for professional landscapers and homeowners.

The only pre-emergent herbicide with EPA exemption status is corn gluten meal which must be applied in early spring before weed seeds emerge since most annual weed seeds germinate when soil Temperatures reach 53F – 55F

With the emergence of green herbicides comes the learning curve of what, where how and which species they are effective on since these natural products have not been evaluated like synthetic herbicides by laboratory or independent testing organizations on multiple broad leaf, grasses, sedges and trees.

Because of the of the growing concern of the use of synthetic herbicide wich include glyphosate and 2,4,D people are demanding alternative to protect air, soil and water from pollution that universities , environmental awareness groups and public agencies are making a big effort to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides which have a greater potential to contaminate surface waters.

Retailers and big box hardware stores are beginning to dedicate shelf space to least toxic pesticides as alternatives; most of these new natural herbicides contain essential oils or other natural plant extracts to target weeds.

Alternative herbicides to glyphosate

Alternative herbicides to glyphosate fall into seven categories: Natural acids (vinegar + citric acids), Herbicidal soaps, Iron-based herbicides, Salt-based herbicides, Natural phytotoxic oils (clove oil, Peppermint oil, pine oil, citronella oil), and corn gluten meal.

The majority of the green weed-control products that are botanically based are derived from clove oil, eugenol, and d-limonene, soaps, salts of fatty acids, and Soybean oil. They work by destroying the leaf cuticle or causing cell leakage that rapidly leads to death. Because these herbicides kill only green parts of the plant on contact they don’t translocate to the roots like synthetics so they don’t provide control of weeds with extensive root systems or underground storage structures such as rhizomes, tubers, or bulbs. So it is important to spray the growing points, or else the plant will regrow. Grasses and perennial weeds are very difficult to control for a long period of time some or all of their growing points are below ground.

They are nonselective meaning they cant definciate between a broad leaf, grass or sedge so extreme caution must be taken around desirable plants as they can cause permanent damage to landscape plants.

These herbicides are known as postemergent are applied after the weeds have emerged and have little or no soil residual activity which means you must reapply them often as needed.

  • They are not pre-emergents so they do not control weed seedlings that germinate.
  • They are considered contact or burndown herbicides killing plants fast by breaking down plant membranes
  • The best ways improve the efficacy of natural herbicides is too
  • Avoid cutting the label rates to save money because most of these are up to 10X the cost of conventional herbicides, doing it twice is not saving money.
  • Ensure you have good spray coverage; so slowing down to make sure you have applied the product to run off on the leaves and inspecting to make sure.
  • Application in cool month may not give you the desired reaults so application may restricted to hot summer months then temperatures exceed 85°F
  • Adding surfactants, adjuvants and stickers may improve weed control.
  • Treating early when weeds are small, young and tender is vital to achieve control.
  • Frequent and repeat applications may be required  for larger weeds in most cases.
  • Avoid applying if rain is predicted within 24 hours.

Natural herbicides can be a safer and effective as part of an integrated pest management program, as with any chemical wether natural, organic or synthetic Caution should always be execised Users should use the same personal protection such as gloves, protective eye wear, long sleave shirts, long pants, shoes with socks as some of the acetic acid products can be quite hazardous to handle and plant based or “natural” products can cause skin irritation or eye or lung problems even if the they are listed as EPA 25b exempt.

From a cost perspective natural herbicides do not compete on price, alternative herbicides cost much more in chemical and labor required to achieve control due to the concentrations and number of applications required when compared to glyphosate.

A study by Cornell University found that acetic acid herbicides were more than 3X more expensive per foot basis than glyphosate.

A study by the University of Massachusetts Transportation Center which is probably the only real world study performed in the most difficult circumstances, showed that glyphosate cost $20 per mile to control weeds along roadways. The Natural alternative materials (Citric Acid, Acetic Acid, Clove Oil, Scythe®, etc) varied in cost from $360 to $2400 per mile. That is 18X to 120X cost difference.

Powerpoint Slides on Alternative Weed Killer

Four‐Corners WSARE Organic Weed Management Conference Alternative Weed Management Phil Shuler, FLC Agriculture Dept.https://www.fortlewis.edu/Portals/89/Docs/Alternative%20Weed%20management.pdf

Postemergence Contact Herbicides Organic and Other Non-microbial Cheryl Wilen University of California Cooperative Extension/UC IPM Joe Neal North Carolina State University. http://wrir4.ucdavis.edu/events/2017_SLR_Meeting/Presentations/WeedManagement/2%20Wilen_IR4_Colorado%202017.pdf

Natural Vinegar Non Selective Post Emergent Weed Control Acidic Acid

Nature’s Wisdom Vinegar 20%

30% Vinegar Natural Weed Killer

Concentrated vinegar is corrosive, you must use personal protection equipment like a respirator, safety glasses, gloves, long sleeve shirt and pants, shoes with socks. The residuals will degrade very quickly to carbon dioxide and water.

According to a 2006 USDA-ARS study Total crabgrass and grass weed control was resulting in weed control that ranged from 28 to 45% at 5% to 20% at 10 to 100 gallons per acre. 48% control when 20% acetic acid was applied at 100 gpa with canola oil.

Vinagreen Natural Non Selective Herbicide Organic 20% Acetic Acid

Typical Weeds Controlled by Vinagreen

Vinagreen is a non-Selective Control of Herbaceous Broadleaf Weeds and Weed Grasses Horticultural 20% Vinegar acetic acid food grade vinegar Biopesticide for weeds that Surround Food crops and Non-food crops for Non-production Agricultural, Farmstead, Right-of-Way, and Institutional Land Sites.

Vinagreen Weed Control is the result of the acetous fermentation of dilute ethyl alcohol from agricultural origin, The alcohol is converted to acetic acid by the microorganism Acetobacter aceti in vinegar generators or acetators, free of clarifiers, preservatives or other impurities.

For best results apply Vinagreen when weeds are small about 3 to 5 leaf stage and actively growing. Spray Vinagreen on unwanted weeds to the point of wetness or runoff, spray in full sunshine when temperatures are above 65F. Apply at rates of 15 to 30 gallons per acre.

ANNUAL BROADLEAF WEEDS Black medic, Chickweed, Cinquefoil (rough), Common groundsel, Hairy nightshade, Lambsquarters Mustard spp., Oxalis spp., Pigweed spp., Ragweed spp., Shepherdspurse, Smartweed (Ladysthumb) Velvetleaf,

PERENNIAL BROADLEAF WEEDS, Cinquefoil (silvery), Dandelion, Ground ivy, Plantain spp., Toadflax, Tufted vetch, Wild carrot, PERENNIAL

GRASSES AND SEDGE, Bluegrass, Quackgrass, Witchgrass.

ANNUAL GRASSES, Crabgrass, Foxtail spp., Italian ryegrass, Poa annual.

Ammonium soaps of fatty acids Herbicides Natural Weed Control Products

Axxe Bio Safe Ammonium Nonanoate 40.00%

Finalsan Ammoniated soap of fatty acids 22%

Mirimichi Green PRO Weed Control Ammonium 40.0 wt.%

Ammonium salt of fatty acid is a contact herbicide it does not move within plants for control or suppression of weeds it does not have any soil residual activity it has a half-life of less than one day in both soil and water, the dietary risk from food and drinking water is not a concern. It is slightly toxic to aquatic invertebrates and fish.

Potassium salts of fatty acids are produced by adding potassium hydroxide to fatty acids extracted from animal fats and plant oils such as palm, coconut, olive, castor, and cottonseed.

In toxicology studies health effects noted in animals occur at doses more than 100 times higher than levels to which humans are normally exposed to when using pesticide products according to label directions.

Ammonium salt of fatty acid is of low acute toxicity mildly to moderately skin irritant, and a moderate irritant to the eyes, it is not a dermal sensitizer. Thus, the signal words “CAUTION – SKIN IRRITANT” and “WARNING- EYE IRRITANT” are on the label.

Ammonium nonanoate is a close relative of other Ammonium salt of fatty acid also known as soap salts, degrades rapidly through biodegradation (microbial action), its half-life is probably less than one day.


Ammonium nonanoate Known Chemical Names

  • Lauric acid-potassium salt
  • Myristic acid-potassium salt
  • Oleic acid-potassium salt
  • Ricinoleic acid-potassium salt
  • Nonanoic acid -ammonium salt.

CAS #

  • 67701-09-1 (Potassium salts of fatty acids, C8–18)
  • 10124-65-9 (Potassium laurate)
  • 143-18-0 (Potassium oleate)
  • 63718-65-0 (Ammonium nonanoate)

https://archive.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/web/pdf/4083fact.pdf

https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/fs_PC-031802_01-Nov-06.pdf

https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Soaps%20H%20report%202015.pdf

Effectiveness of Ammonium Nonanoate and Potassium salts of fatty acids

Weed Control Efficacy With Ammonium Nonanoate for Organic Vegetable Production

“Carpetweed was very sensitive to ammonium nonanoate, with 66% control at the lowest application rate and volume, and most application rates and volumes produced at least 88% control. Grass weed control ranged from 31% to 54% for goosegrass and 24% to 54% for smooth crabgrass. The lowest ammonium nonanoate rate provided unsatisfactory control for all weed species. Ammonium nonanoate provided consistent control across a large range of application volumes. The results indicate that ammonium nonanoate has excellent potential as an organic herbicide.”

https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/50064

Final-San-O Non-Selective Grass and Broadleaf Herbicide  Ammoniated Soap of Fatty Acids https://www.certisusa.com/pest_management_products/herbicide/final-san-o

Final-San-O is a fast-acting a non-selective herbicide algae, moss killer,  grass and that controls many common annual weeds It also suppresses the growth of some bi-annual and perennial weeds. It is OMRI Listed and NOP compliant.

Citrus oil d-limonene Weed Killer

Avenger D-limonene (citrus oil) – 70 %

D-Limonene is known as Citrus oil extracted from the rinds of citrus fruits and is GRAS Generally Regarded As Save status of the US Food And Drug Administration. It is used in foods, perfumes and cleaning products

The d-limonene  citrus oil kills the plant by dissolving the waxy cuticle of plants, causing them to desiccate and die. d-limonene  citrus oil is more effective on broadleaf weeds than grassy weeds.

There are two forms of D-limonene technical grade (95% in d-limonene) or food grade (96%) orange oil.

D-limonene  citrus Colorless to pale yellow liquid with citrus aroma the product is combustible and can causes moderate to severe irritation which can cause slight rednessa prolonged exposure may cause drying of the skin. If inhaled it may cause nose, throat, and respiratory tract irritation, coughing, and headache. If ingested it is not likely to be toxic, but may cause vomiting, headache, or other medical problems.

D-limonene  citrus oil does not contain any carcinogens or potential carcinogens as listed by OSHA, IARC, ACGIH or NTP.

D-limonene citrus oil is combustible with a flash point between 100ºF and 200ºF

To date there is very little testing that has been done using d-limonene for commercial use other than the proprietary independent testing done by the manufactures which must be done to legally claim they can control weeds which is a select few weeds that could have been tested. This does not mean they control all weeds and grasses at all stages with the same concentration at different times of years under all weather circumstances applying it at the same frequency. This requires field expertise and testing by the user to determine how to use the active ingredient d-limonene in their practice.  

An article published in The IPM Practitioner Vollume XXXII Number 5/6 May/June 2010 Alternative Herbicides in Turfgrass and Organic Agriculture discuses a limited test performed with satisfactory results for a select crop weed species.

“application rates of 60 gal/acre (560 liter/ha) or more are required. For broadcast operation, it is diluted to about 14% of original strength. Spot applications use a dilution to 20% (Marrone 2010). Treatment of younger weeds is more effective than older ones. For instance, GreenMatch gives 96% control of 19-day old broadleaf weeds such as pigweed, Amaranthus spp. and black nightshade, Solanum nigrum; but only 17% control of 26-day old plants (Lanini 2010). Weed populations of wild mustard, buckhorn plantain, hairy fleabane, lambsquarters and shepherd’s purse are reduced 90% at 28 days after treatment (Marrone 2010). GreenMatch EX contains 50% lemongrass oil, which is an EPA 25b exempt material (Quarles 1996a). According to company data, Greenmatch EX at 10-15% dilution and applied at 100 gal/acre (935 liter/ha) gave excellent control against “spurge and thistle, good control against bindweed, clover, and crabgrass; and satisfactory control against bermudagrass.” Smooth crabgrass was highly sensitive to the product. Poor efficacy was seen with henbit and dandelion (Avila-Adame et al. 2008).”

https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/fs_PC-031802_01-Nov-06.pdf

https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/decision_PC-031802_23-Jun-08.pdf

Natural Essential Oil Weed Killers

The popularity of organic foods grade oil and products continue to be on demand effective natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals for weed and pest management are needed to meet new governmental and consumer demand for organic standards.

Clove oil derived from the clove plant Syzygium aromaticum Eugenia caryophyllata clove bud oil, eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene,  cinnamon oil Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

Herbicidal activities of clove oil, eugenol and cinnamon oil and the role of crystalline leaf epicuticular wax causing electrolyte leakage damaging their cellular membranes.

Several studies have been conducted on the potential use of vinegar and a clove-oil mixes on young, actively growing sweet corn, onion, and potato have a potential for control. https://bioone.org/journals/Weed-Technology/volume-23/issue-1/WT-08-002.1/The-Potential-Use-of-Vinegar-and-a-Clove-Oil-Herbicide/10.1614/WT-08-002.1.short

In the article Herbicide effects of essential oils Thomas Tworkoski Appalachian Fruit Research Station, USDA, ARS, 45 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430; ttworkos@afrs.ars.usda.gov In laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted with Twenty-five different oils that were applied to detached leaves of dandelion in the laboratory.  In order to determine the herbicidal effect of plant-derived oils and to identify the active ingredient in an oil with herbicide activity. Essential oils from red thyme, summer savory, cinnamon, and clove were the most phytotoxic.

Matran Clove Leaf Oil 50.00%

Matran EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATE that has no REENTRY INTERVAL for agricultural and nurseries the Ingredients in this product meet the requirements of the USDA for the NOP National Organic Program.

BurnOut Weed & Grass Killer Concentrate Citric Acid (24%), Clove Oil (8%)

Final Project Report to the NYS IPM Program, Agriculture IPM 2000 – 2001

David Chinery, Cooperative Extension Educator, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Rensselaer County, 61 State Street, Troy, NY 12180

Dr. Leslie Weston, Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

This project evaluated the broad-spectrum herbicidal activity of two new acetic acid type herbicides, three treatments of commercially-available acetic acid, one herbicidal soap (pelargonic acid) and one commercial herbicide used in a turfgrass or landscape renovation situation.

All acetic acid treatments caused discoloration and damage by the 6 hours after treatment.

Initial control was rated at 70 to 100% for all of the species that where treated that contained acetic acid

Some products showed good weed suppression for less than five weeks with good control seen for 13 weeks, Glyphosate, as expected, provided 90% or better control from two weeks to 13 weeks.

Weed Zap Weed Killer

According to JH Biotech Weed Zap is effective on the following weeds Netseed Lambsquarter Sowthistle Common Mallow Leafy Spurge Bristly Oxtounge Bermuda Grass Prostrate Pigweed Hairy Fleabane Canary Grass Pig Weed Rag Weed Bursage Starthistle Knapweed Prickly Lettuce Dandelion Common Cocklebur Wild Mustard Chick Weed Wood Sorrel.

Research on Weed Zap

In an article by Bob Johnson Organic herbicides becoming more effective, experts say

In order to get 60% to 100% control of weeds you would have to apply it at high volumes of these when are 12 days old. If weeds are allowed to be 26 days old, even high volumes the best you can get is 40% control, with grasses that are 12-day-old control was about 40%.

The chemical cost to treat one acre is $400 to $600 for a broadcast spray

“We found that high gallonage was an important factor. You need to use 70 gallons an acre, not the 20 or 30 gallons an acre you would use with a synthetic herbicide. These are all contact materials, so good coverage is essential,” Lanini said. Tom Lanini, with University of Califormia Cooperative Extension

http://jhbiotech.com/docs/Study-Organic-herbicdes.pdf

Bob Johnson is a reporter in Magalia bjohn11135@aol.com

EVALUATION OF NATURAL SELECTIVE POST-EMERGENT HERBICIDE PRODUCTS ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF WEEDS AND TURFGRASS.

http://jhbiotech.com/docs/Study-Weed-Zap-Trial-Ontario-Canada.pdf

EFFECTS OF ROLLING/CRIMPING RYE AND CLOVER WITH DIFFERENT HERBICIDE TYPES AND RATES ON THEIR TERMINATION RATE, COTTON POPULATION AND YIELD IN A NO TILL SYSTEM

http://jhbiotech.com/docs/Study-Weed-Zap-No-Till-Cotton.pdf

ORGANIC HERBICIDES — DO THEY WORK? by W. Thomas Lanini

http://jhbiotech.com/docs/UC-Evaluation-of-Weed-Zap.pdf

Eugenol, Essential Oil (Clove) Halo 25b

Phydura Clove Oil 10% , Vinegar 90%

https://extension.umd.edu/sites/extension.umd.edu/files/_docs/programs/ipmnet/Vinegar-AnAlternativeToGlyphosate-UMD-Smith-Fiola-and-Gill.pdf

Preem 25b

Eco Blend Soybean oil

Weak Acids As Alternative Weed Control Products

Suppress® Herbicide EC Caprylic Acid (47%) and Capric Acid (32%)

A control efficacy trial conducted at the CREC Suppress EC was demonstrated to control up to 85% of barnyardgrass weed grass growth in the field. An 18% solution of Suppress with a water carrier of pH 2.8 was used to yield these results. It is important to note that the water carrier is of a pH < 3; pH of water carrier can be lowered by using citric acid such as lemon juice.

In greenhouse trials Suppress EC worked best with plants that are 7cm in height or less. Results confirmed close to a 100% control of palmer amaranth 5cm in height and about 90% control of palmer amaranth of 7cm in height

https://www.clemson.edu/cafls/research/weeds/research-updates/index.html#suppress_ec

Homeplate Non-Selective Herbicide 44% caprylic acid 36% capric acid https://www.certisusa.com/pest_management_products/herbicide/homeplate

Caprylic acid is a medium-chain fatty acid that is found in palm oil, coconut oil, and the milk of humans and bovines.

Capric Acid also known as Decanoic acid, or decylic acid, is a saturated medium-chain fatty acid with a 10-carbon backbone. Capric acid is found naturally in the coconut and palm kernel oils as well as the milk of various mammals. More than a million tons of citric acid are produced every year. It is a common acidifier or as a flavoring and chelating agent.

Citric acid is also effective as a synergist increasing the activity of 70% caprylic acid on giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), Caprylic acid formulated with 80% caprylic acid, 15% emulsifier and 5% lactic acid was significantly more effective in killing velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), lambsquarters, and giant foxtail when citric acid was used as a synergist (Penner et al. 2011). https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/56118/citric-acid-MRP-NYSIPM.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

OMRI listed, non-selective, broad-spectrum, fatty acid burndown herbicide that works as a foliar contact spray to control a wide variety of weeds. It it is a non-systemic Total Vegetation Killer labeled for use in all crops, including outdoor and protected crops proven efficacy against a growing list of broadleaf weeds and grasses that includes black nightshade, Canada thistle, catchweed bedstraw, chickweed, common lamb’s quarter, foxtail, shepherd’s purse and wild Chamomile. It is rainfast within three hours and achieves control within 12 hours to 72 hours depending upon environmental conditions.

Efficacy of natural fatty acid based herbicides on mixed weed stands

https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/8947/8226

Summer Set All Down Organic Acetic Acid 23% Citric 14% https://summersetproducts.com/product/alldown-concentrate/

Summerset AllDown Concentrate is a fast-acting, non-selective contact herbicide for the elimination of broadleaf and grass weeds. This synergistic blend of 23% Acetic Acid and 14% Citric Acid is very effective to burndown or kill unwanted Broadleaf Weeds and Grasses. Approved for use in organic farming. Use in flowerbeds, vegetable gardens, around trees and shrubs, along fence lines, patios, driveways, sidewalks, fruit trees, vines, and other areas where weed control is desired. Repeat applications may be required for larger perennial weeds or if re-growth occurs.

Citric Acid Citric acid is found naturally in all citrus fruits, particularly in lemons and limes, this is what gives them their tart, sour taste. Citric acid is classified as weak organic acid the chemical formula C

6H8O7. In biochemistry.  Citric acid is also effective as a synergist when added to other active ingredients like clove oil or d-limonene, garlic

The the study Citric Acid Profile Active Ingredient Eligible for Minimum Risk Pesticide Use Brian P. Baker and Jennifer A. Grant New York State Integrated Pest Management, Cornell University, Geneva NY

The herbicidal activity in one trial comparing various natural product herbicides consisting of citric acid 10% and garlic oil 0.2% had the greatest efficacy against broadleaf weeds of all the commercial products

tested (Abouziena et al. 2009). Stranglervine (Morrenia odorata), black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) were reduced by 95% or more at 4 weeks after treatment compared to a no-treatment control. Other products and active ingredients in the trial that were less effective included. 45.6% clove oil 5% citric acid and 0.2% garlic oil, corn gluten meal, and acetic acid.

Citric acid increased the activity of herbicidal treatments of 70% caprylic acid on giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) when formulated with 15% glycerol and 15% proprietary emulsifier.

Caprylic acid was formulated with 80% caprylic acid, 15% emulsifier and 5% lactic acid was significantly more effective in killing velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), lambsquarters, and giant foxtail when citric acid was used as a synergist (Penner et al. 2011).

Another study looked at various complexing agents that increased the efficacy of the herbicides dichlorprop and glyphosate on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), quackgrass (Agropyron repens), and chickweed

(Stellaria media). Citric acid enhanced herbicidal activity more than acetic, succinic, propionic, sulfuric, or formic acids (Turner and Loader 1978). However, orthophosphoric acid was the most effective acid at

enhancing herbicidal effects, and malic, oxalic, tartaric, and glycolic acid all were similar to citric in their

efficacy. https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/56118/citric-acid-MRP-NYSIPM.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Scythe Herbicide Pelargonic Acid 57.0% https://gowanco.com/products/scythe

Studies suggests that the mode of action of pelargonic acid is it moves through the cuticle and cell membranes and lowers the internal pH of the plant cells over the next several minutes the pools of cellular ATP and Glucose-6-phosphate decline followed membrane dysfunction which eventually leads to cell leakage, collapse and desiccation of the tissue.

THE USE OF PELARGONIC ACID AS A WEED MANAGEMENT TOOL Steven Savage and Paul Zomer Mycogen Corporation, San Diego, California https://ucanr.edu/repository/fileaccess.cfm?article=162076&p=HXCWOI

Surfactants As Synergists in Organic Weed Control

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate SLS Weed Keiller

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is one of the most ingredients in soap and cleaning products like shampoo. Sodium Laurel Sulfate SLS is known as a  “surfactant.”  Used in spray applications to surface tension and allow for even application of liquids it is also used as a cleansing and foaming agent.

Cellular Toxicity of Surfactants Used as Herbicide Additives

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3247771/

A study to show the cellular toxicity of surfactant use in herbicide formulations were evaluated by measuring their effects on the membrane integrity, metabolic activity, mitochondrial activity, and total protein synthesis rate in a cell culture of plants. The results suggest that the toxicity of surfactants used for acute herbicide intoxication.

https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/S%20Lauryl%20report.pdf

EcoSmart Weed and Grass Killer 25b  Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, 2-Phenethyl Propionate

See this study to know all about 2-Phenethyl Propionate Profile Active Ingredient Eligible for Minimum Risk Pesticide Use Brian P. Baker and Jennifer A. Grant New York State Integrated Pest Management, Cornell University, Geneva NY

2-Phenethyl propionate also known as phenethyl propanoate or phenylethyl propionate, it is the ester of phenethyl alcohol and propionic acid.  It has shown insecticidal and antifungal properties used in many natural along with pyrethrum to control insects it has a minimal risk 25b classification by the EPA not requiring EPA registration.

https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/56134/PeP-MRP-NYSIPM.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Testing the Efficacy of Alternatives to Herbicides in Controlling Undesirable Plants on NYSDOT Roadside Rights-of-Way https://www.dot.ny.gov/divisions/engineering/technical-services/trans-r-and-d-repository/C-06-24%20TASK%203%20%201%20%20NYSDOT%20NATURAL%20HERBICIDES%20FIELD%20TESTS.pdf

An big emphasis of weed management on rights-of-way in an environmentally responsible manner For many this means excluding the use of glyphosate to kill and control weeds, particularly synthetic  chemicals that are not natural. An important part of Integrated Weed Management is to research and to prove local effects of applications. A field trial of natural herbicides that are acceptable to many people  was conducted on New York State Department of Transportation roadside rights-of-way in 2010-2012.

Randomized complete block trials were performed across New York State to test citric acid and clove oil active, citric acid, 2-Phenethyl proprionate and clove oil, glufosinate ammonium and pelargonic acid.

Conclusion control of undesirable plants ranged from near 0% to almost 100% across the many natural herbicide actives tested, this was related to the mode of action of these herbicides that were contact only resulted in the least degree of kill and control, whereas the only systemic herbicide was usually more effective.

Costs of natural herbicide treatments were considered to be substantially greater traditional, however  there is potential for significant cost reduction if purchasing in bulk and the possible reduction of rates,

Natural herbicides typically require multiple applications to achive control which increases the likelihood of workers and travelers on the that highway having an accident with property damage or injury.

Despite the low effectiveness and high dollar costs, it is going to become vital to have natural herbicides for use in select situations.

WeedRot Naturally Systemic Weed Killer Concentrate Citric Acid 10.00% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate — 4.00% https://sierranaturalscience.com/weed-rot/

Weed Rot works by removing the waxy layer allowing it penetrates deep into the roots stopping the plant from taking in amino acids and nutrients.

WeedRot is one of the few Naturally Systemic herbicides on the market similar to how glyphosate work, it is fast working in 3 hours and is long lasting up to 4 days there is no no soil harm it starts to break down in the soul in 5-10 days, it is an 25b EPA Exempt product, it is Safe around Children and Pets when applied according to label directions and it has Patent Pending.

Sodium Clorate Weeds Control

Organic & Synthetic Herbicides for Athletic Fields

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/pyrethrins-ziram/sodium-chlorate-ext.html

Sodium chlorate is 30-50 times more toxic to plants than sodium chloride, Sodium chlorate is considered phytotoxic to all green plant parts and is a non-selective herbicide. It can also kill through root absorption.

Sodium chlorate can be used to control morningglory, Canada thistle, johnsongrass and St. Johnswort. It is primarily used on non-crop land for spot treatment and for total weed control on roadsides, fenceways, ditches and used as a defoliant and desiccant of cotton, safflower, corn, flax, peppers, soybeans, grain sorghum, southern peas, dry beans, rice and sunflowers

Plants absorb sodium chlorate through both roots and leaves the herbicide is carried downward through the xylem since it kills the phloem tissue.

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