63 AMERICAN COCKROACH, PERIPLANETA AMERICANA Facts

1.       Is the largest of the common peridomestic cockroaches measuring on average 4 cm in length.
2.       It occurs in buildings throughout Florida, especially in commercial buildings.
3.       In the northern United States the cockroach is mainly found in steam heat tunnels or large institutional buildings.
4.       Is second only to the German cockroach in abundance.
5.       47 species are included in the genus Periplaneta, none of which are endemic to the US
6.       Has spread throughout the world by commerce.
7.       It is found mainly in basements, sewers, steam tunnels, and drainage systems.
8.       Is readily found in commercial and large buildings such as restaurants, grocery stores, bakeries, and anywhere food is prepared and stored.
9.       Is rarely found in houses, however, infestations can occur after heavy rain.
10.   They can develop to enormous numbers, greater than 5,000.
11.   Outdoors, are found in moist, shady areas such as hollow trees, woodpiles, and mulch.
12.   They are occasionally found under roof shingles and in attics.
13.   They dwell outside but will wander indoors to search for food and water or to avoid extreme weather conditions.
14.   Areas such as trees, woodpiles, garbage facilities, and accumulations of organic debris around homes provide adequate food, water, and harborages.
15.   Mass migrations of the American cockroaches are common.
16.   They migrate into houses and apartments from sewers via the plumbing.
17.   They migrate from trees and shrubs located alongside buildings or with branches overhanging roofs.
18.   During the day they respond negatively to light.
19.   Rests in harborages close to water pipes, sinks, baths, and toilets where the microclimate is suitable for survival.
20.   Females lay their eggs in a hardened, purse-shaped egg case called an ootheca.
21.   About one week after mating the female produces an ootheca and at the peak of her reproductive period, she may form two oothecae per week.
22.   The females on average produce one egg case a month for ten months.
23.   Laying 16 eggs per egg case.
24.   The female deposits the ootheca near a source of food.
25.   Sometimes gluing the egg case to a surface with a secretion from her mouth.
26.   The deposited ootheca contains water sufficient for the eggs to develop without receiving additional water from the substrate.
27.   The egg case is brown when deposited and turns black in a day or two.
28.   The nymphal stage begins when the egg hatches and ends with the emergence of the adult.
29.   The number of times an American cockroach molts varies from 6 to 14.
30.   The first instar is white immediately after hatching then becomes a grayish brown.
31.   After molting, subsequent instars of the cockroach nymphs are white and then turn reddish-brown with the posterior margins of the thoracic and abdominal segments being a darker color.
32.   Wings are not present in the nymphal stages.
33.   Wing pads become noticeable in the third or fourth instar.
34.   Complete development from egg to adult is about 600 days.
35.   The nymphs, as well as the adults, actively forage for food and water.
36.   The adult is reddish-brown with a pale brown or yellow band around the edge of the pronotum.
37.   Males and females have a pair of slender, jointed cerci at the tip of the abdomen.
38.   The male cockroaches have cerci with 18 to 19 segments.
39.   The females’ cerci have 13 to 14 segments.
40.   The male American cockroaches have a pair of styli between the cerci while the females do not.
41.   It has three life stages: the egg, a variable number of nymphal instars, and the adult.
42.   The life cycle from egg to adult averages about 600 days.
43.   The adult life span is maybe 400 days.
44.   The nymphs emerge from the egg case after about six to eight weeks and mature in about six to twelve months.
45.   Adults can live up to one year and an adult female will produce an average of 150 young in her lifetime.
46.   Environmental factors such as temperature and humidity affect the developmental time of the American cockroach.
47.   Outdoors, the female shows a preference for moist, concealed oviposition sites.
48.   The American cockroach is an omnivorous and opportunistic feeder.
49.   It consumes decaying organic matter.
50.   Is a scavenger and will eat almost anything.
51.   It prefers sweets.
52.   Has been observed eating paper, boots, hair, bread, fruit, book bindings, fish, peanuts, old rice, putrid sake, the soft part on the inside of animal hides, cloth, and dead insects.
53.   Can become a public health problem due to their association with human waste and disease and their ability to move from sewers into homes and commercial establishments.
54.   In the United States during the summer, alleyways, and yards may be overrun by these cockroaches.
55.   Is found in caves, mines, privies, latrines, cesspools, sewers, sewage treatment plants, and dumps.
56.   At least 22 species of pathogenic human bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoans, as well as five species of helminthic worms, have been isolated from field-collected American cockroaches.
57.   Cockroaches are also aesthetically displeasing because they can soil items with their excrement and regurgitation.
58.   Several hymenopteran natural enemies of the American cockroach have been found.
59.   Parasitic wasps deposit their eggs in the cockroach ootheca preventing the emergence of cockroach nymphs.
60.   Caulking of penetrations through ground-level walls.
61.   Removal of rotting leaves.
62.   Limiting the moist areas in and around a structure can help in reducing areas that are attractive.
63.   Loose, toxic, pellet baits are extremely effective in controlling American cockroach populations.

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