aedes albopictus
Aedes albopictus also known as the Asian tiger mosquito is 1 of 10 aedes species found in Florida which include Aedes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes bahamensis, Aedes fulvus pallens, aedes infirmatus, Aedes sollicitans, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Aedes tormentor, Aedes triseriatus, Aedes vexans. It is a major mosquito pest in Miami partially due the abundance of man-made water habitats and areas where flood waters can cumulates for weeks. It is also a mayor vector transmitter of dengue, chicungunya, Zika, Western Nile, Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis. Control of Aedes albopictus will consist of an integrated mosquito control strategy using natural baits, insect growth regulators, biological and synthetic insecticides. Aedes albopictus is realted to aedes agypti  aedes biscaynesis, aedes infirmatus, aedes sollicitans and aedes fulvus
Aedes Albopictus
Courtesy of the CDC

History of the Aedes Albopictus

The Aedes albopictus is native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. In 1985, it was reported for the first time in Texas, then in Europe in 1979, in Albania, and in 1990 it was found in Italy. The expansion in the United States was recorded in 32 states, including Hawaii, and is believed to have been facilitated and originated by the movement of used tires on interstate highways. In Latin America it was reported for the first time in Brazil in 1986 and then in Mexico in 1988, in Africa, it was first detected in 1990 in South Africa.

Distribution of the Aedes Albopictus mosquito

Its distribution is worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas, includes an extensive area of Asia, the Pacific Islands and the Caribbean, with a significant expansion in North and South America, Africa and Europe. Currently in North America, it is established in 866 counties in 26 states, in the southeastern area of the E.E.U.U. and small areas in New York and Arizona, their arrival have decreased the abundance and distribution of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, as there is a competitive exclusion between the two species. The capacity of the species albopictus to induce photoperiodic diapause of the egg allows it to hibernate in temperate regions, which helps its establishment in more temperate areas of Asia, North America and Europe. The distribution has been facilitated by the passive transport of eggs in used tires and lucky bamboo, in addition to public or private transport from heavily infested areas is also an important source.

Biting of the Aedes Albopictus

The bite is usually very painful and causes local discomfort, such as redness or formation of the urticarial papule. Anaphylaxis can also occur due to spittle inoculated by the mosquito at the time blood is drawn. The Aedes albopictus is a very aggressive diurnal biter; its feeding rush hours are during the early morning and at the end of the afternoon.

Habitat of theAedes Albopictus

The Ae. Albopictus has natural and artificial habitats; its adult forms are found in urban, suburban and rural areas, especially in the vegetation around the houses. Eggs, larval forms and pupae are found in water containers such as pots, dishes under pots, urns / vases from cemeteries, buckets, cans, clogged rain gutters, ornamental ponds, drums, pet water containers, water channels for birds; We also find natural habitats such as: tree holes, bamboo parts and rock pools. Feeding What is this? The normal diet is a carbohydrate base, consuming the nectar of flowers, both in males and females, but the females become hematophagous when they are fertilized and the ovaries enter into activity, to perform the formation of their eggs.

Life cycle of the Aedes Albopictus

The complete cycle from egg to adult is aquatic and under optimal conditions (25ºC) it can be completed in about 15 or 20 days. Adults can live 20-30 days at 25ºC, and at low temperatures (15ºC) they can live up to 50 days

Adult Aedes Albopictus

The adults measure from 2 to 10 mm, being the males on average 20% smaller than the females. It has a recognizable distinguishing feature, a black escutum (back) with a white stripe in the middle line that goes from the head to the chest, in man the antennas are the mouthparts and the pieces modified for the feeding of the child, the tergitas. The legs are black with white basal scales in each tarsal segment. It has a flight range limited to 200 m, so it is likely that the production sites are close to where the mosquito is. Eggs of the Aedes Albopictus The eggs of this species possess a special characteristic and the presentation of a phase of change which is a physiological state of inactivity in which the hatching is suppressed, this is a mechanism that allows to live the winter season and the low temperatures, the Diapause occurs below 13 to 14 hours of daylight, however, in some places this threshold occurs at 11 to 12 o’clock. Tropical and subtropical populations are active throughout the year, with no diapause phase. The eggs are black and oval with a length of 0.5 mm. And they can withstand drying up to a year.

Larvae Aedes Albopictus

The larvae are also called wigglers, their development occurs between 5 to 10 days of temperature, they pass through 4 larval stages and feed on organic matter and particles found in water; they use serpentine movements to reach the surface.

Pupae of the Aedes Albopictus

The development of information occurs in two days. Associated Diseases of Aedes Albopictus The Ae. Albopicus is a vector of several viral diseases, such as dengue and its four serotypes, chikungunya, Zika and other viruses such as Western Nile, Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis. It is not considered the main vector of these diseases, but as a secondary vector, in the United States there is no evidence that the mosquito is a threat to public health. In Asia it is considered a maintenance vector and occasionally participates in the transmission of dengue, in areas of Hawaii, China, Japan and Seychelles In Italy, his involvement in the Chikungunya outbreak in 2006-2007 was demonstrated. In addition, Ae. albopictus has a role in the transmission of Dirofilaria in Asia, North America and Europe, the dirofilaria (filarial nematodes D. immitis and D. repens) is a parasite that is transmitted mainly among dogs (or other canids that act as reservoir hosts). ) and mosquitoes, but that can also affect humans.

Control of handling of Aedes Albopictus Mosquito

Control is fundamentally based on reducing and eliminating breeding habitat, larval development sites, treatments with larvicides and adulticides. Treatment of stagnant water with microbial larvicides, Bacillus thuringiensis (serotipus israelensis), Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus thuringiensis + sphaericus. Wolbachia infection is also used to block the transmission of dengue virus and chikungunya virus, and the introduction of natural predators.The decrease in human-vector contact. Recommend the use of appropriate clothing protection to avoid mosquitoes bites, use long sleeves and insect repellent such as DEET will reduce exposure to bites. To avoid native passive transmission from endemic countries, in January 1988, the US Public Health Service demanded that all used tires that enter the country be dry, clean and treated with fumigants. ATSB Atractant Sugar Baits Biological larvicides includes products containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, spinosad, beauveria bassiana strain gha Insect growth regulators Juvenile hormone analogs (S-Methoprene, pyriproxyfen), chitin synthesis inhibitors (Novaluron). Use of microencapsulated pyrethroids Deltametrhin, lambda-Cyhalothrin, Esfenvalerate, beta-Cyfluthrin.