The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a major pest problem in Miami and South Florida, has its origin in the African continent and it is believed that its spread in Europe and America was due to commercial and colonization ships. It spread widely from the south of the United States to Argentina in the early twentieth century, then in 1947 the Pan American Health Organization developed a program with the objective of controlling yellow fever and its main vector, this campaign was very effective, Through education, control of the adult mosquito and control of major breeding sites, in 1980 the propagation of the mosquito in the Americas began to resurface again, extending its distribution to the United States and Europe. aedes agypti is aslo related to aedes albopictus, aedes biscaynesis, aedes infirmatus, aedes sollicitans and aedes fulvus
Distribution of Aedes Aegypti
Its distribution is global with preference to tropical and subtropical regions such as the Southeast of the United States and Asia, the Pacific, islands of India and northern Australia, also spread to more temperate zones in the summer months.
Historically it wasdistributed in Mediterranean countries of the Middle East, Europe and North
Africa, also in southern Russia, Georgia and the Canary Islands.
They are distributed within the latitudes of 40 ° N and 40 ° S, are sensitive to extreme
temperatures, lose activity in climates below 12-14 ° C or above 44 ° to 46 °
C, their inability to experience diapause of its eggs during the winter means
that it cannot inhabit cold regions.
Scathing of Aedes Aegypti
The lesion of the bite is simple, a papule urticariform, which is unique and not grouped, often
progresses to pustules or an erythematous zone, depending on the degree of
sensitization of the host
Habitat & Breeding of Aedes Aegypti
Aedes aegypti was
previously found in wooded areas, where it used the holes of trees as their
habitats, later its behavior underwent an evolution and it happened to have a
domestic habitat, where it has preference for artificial containers, vases,
tires and water tanks, this behavior has given it numerous sites oviposition,
greater protection against unfavorable environmental conditions and greater
access to feed on man, these conditions have achieved a high highly efficient
interhuman transmission of the viruses it transmits.
This mosquito does not
usually travel long distances from its oviposition site when conditions are
It is important to
note that the most important means of passive dispersal of this mosquito and
the viruses it transmits is by means of transport such as ships, airplanes,
buses, trains, trucks, automobiles.
Feeding of Aedes Aegypti
Feeding is different
depending on the sex of the mosquito, the females feed on the blood of birds,
mammals and humans, they need the blood for the formation and maturation of the
eggs, the periods in which the bites intensify are at the beginning of dawn and
the Twilight. However, the males do not have a blood suction device; they eat
carbohydrates from the nectar of the flowers and the sap of the plants.
Life cycle of Aedes Aegypti
The adults are small, about 5-7 millimeters long, dark body with white scales on the upper dorsal thorax, white basal bands on each tarsal segment of the hind legs, simulating rays, the abdomen may also have white scales and it is usually dark brown to black. They have dark wings, filiform antennas, which are feathery in the males.
The buccal parts
differ according to sex, the male parts are designed to feed the nectar, and
the female parts are designed for the suction of the blood.
They live for about a
month. They usually mate on the flight, with a short flight range of 200 m.
Eggs: of Aedes Aegypti
after having obtained a good blood meal is able to produce 100 to 200 eggs per
batch, having the capacity to produce up to 5 batches in all their life, the
eggs are placed adhered in the wet part, above the level of the water,
generally sites with rough walls, that contain clean water, only need a small
amount; The female lays her eggs in 2 or more different places and they are
At the time of laying
the eggs are whitish immediately turn to intense black color, they are long,
smooth, ovoid-shaped approximately one millimeter long. In tropical climates
the egg develops in a span of 2 days, in more temperate climates it can take up
to 5 days.
Larvae of Aedes Aegypti
They have 4 larval
stages, where they are located vertically, oxygen is breathed through a siphon
that is on the surface of the water, feeds on organic particles in the water,
like algae and other microscopic, swim with movement, snaking and are bothered
to feed, are sensitive to sudden changes in light intensity, this period lasts
from 7 to 12 days, if speeds are possible in the larval stage during the
months, as long as the water supply is sufficient.
Pupae of Aedes Aegypti
Adults open the pupil
box outdoors to expand the abdomen, with the head emerging first.
Associated Diseases with Aedes Aegypti
Aedes aegypti is the
main vector involved in the transmission of urban yellow fever, it has been
observed in the transmission of the disease in areas of Africa, Central and
We have also had
implications in all the epidemics of the Republic of Africa, India and
countries of Southeast Asia; the last report was a great Zika outbreak in the
Pacific and the Caribbean. In addition, the main vector of the year, in the
last report in Brazil, has been infected as Aedes aegypti.
Aedes aegypti, the
main vector of the Dengue virus, has isolated the 4 Dengue serotypes; it has
caused major epidemics in America and Asia.
Control of handling of Aedes Aegypti
The control methods
should be directed to the main oviposition sites of Aedes aegypti, which is
currently found in urban environments, the sites of human activities, such as
the storage of external networks.
Some other methods
have used the introduction of predators such as copepods in the larval habitats
of Ae. aegypti, also the introduction of irradiated or genetically modified
mosquitoes, sterile male mosquitoes, in addition to the introduction of
Wolbachia bacteria into Ae. aegypti, a method that manages to inhibit the
replication of the dengue virus, suppressing the transmission of dengue.
It has also shown the use of long-sleeved shirts and long pants in endemic areas to reduce exposure, the use of external repellents in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with one of the following active components: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, lemon eucalyptus oil, para-menthane-diol or 2-undecanone, in addition to treating clothes with permethrin and Gralic.
In2Care Mosquito trap juvenile hormone analogs pyriproxyfen, beauveria bassiana strain gha, and Brewers yeast
ATSB Atractant Sugar Baits
Biological larvicides includes products
containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, spinosad, beauveria bassiana strain gha
Insect growth regulators Juvenile hormone analogs (S-Methoprene, pyriproxyfen), chitin synthesis inhibitors (Novaluron)
Use of microencapsulated pyrethroids Deltametrhin, lambda-Cyhalothrin, Esfenvalerate, beta-Cyfluthrin.